Metaphor – A word or phrase used to imply figurative, not literal or ‘actual’, resemblance; he flew into the room.
Simile – A phrase which establishes similarity between two things to emphasise the point being made. This usually involves the words ‘like’ or ‘as’; ‘he is as quick as an arrow in flight’, ‘as white as snow’, ‘like a burning star’.
Repetition – the repetition of a word or phrase to achieve a particular effect.
Personification – Giving human quality’s to a thing or idea: the moon calls me to her darkened world.
Hyperbole – Emphasizing something for literary purposes which is not meant to be taken literally; we gorged on the banquet of beans on toast.
Alliteration – The first letter of a word is repeated in words that follow; the cold, crisp, crust of clean, clear ice.
jargon – Special words or expressions used by a profession or group that are difficult for others to understand.
Emotive Language – To give a greater emotional impact on their audience. Words can evoke positive emotions, as in: ‘Brave gran risks life to save emaciated orphan’. Or the goal can be more negative: ‘Abandoned children found in filthy, flea-infested flat’.
Symbolism – The use of symbols to represent ideas or qualities.
slang – A type of language consisting of words and phrases that are regarded as very informal e.g “shattered”
Rhetorical question – A question that you ask without expecting an answer e.g
- “Who knows?”
- “Are you stupid?”
- “Did you hear me?”
- “Why not?”
Assonance – Resemblance of sound between syllables of nearby words, arising particularly from the rhyming of two or more stressed vowels, but not consonants (e.g. sonnet, porridge)
Neologism – A newly coined word or expression e.g
- Spam: Flooding the Internet with many copies of the same message, in an attempt to force the message on people who would not otherwise choose to receive it.
- Troll: An individual who posts inflammatory, rude, and obnoxious comments to an online community.
Cliche – A phrase or opinion that is overused and betrays a lack of original thought e.g
- As old as the hills: This describes someone very old
- Time will tell: This means that something will revealed or become clear over time
- In a jiffy: This means something will happen soon
- A diamond in the rough: This describes someone who has a great future.
Colloquial – used in ordinary or familiar conversation; not formal or literary e.g. “raining cats and dogs,” “Old as the hills,” “Eat my dust.”
Idioms – a group of words established by usage as having a meaning not deducible from those of the individual words (e.g. over the moon, see the light ).